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Work in progress. Last updated 27.09.2008

 

 

CAUGHT IN THE ACT:

NEW SOUTH WALES GOVERNMENT ACTS OF BASTARDRY AGAINST ABORIGINAL PEOPLE 

1788 - 2006


by Kathy Stavrou

 

 

Note: This web page is part of a research blog, and will expand.

 

 

 

Index, time-line, summaries, links, dates and pictures

 

 

 

 

Index, time-line, summaries, links, and dates

1768-2006

 

Also indexed: Acts not specifically referring to Aboriginal people but directly affecting their subject-, citizen- and land ownership rights.
(Under research, Acts 1968-2006, Parliamentary Votes and Proceedings 1931-2006)

 

     Pictures

New South Wales Coat of Arm s

Preamble

In the Preamble, I shout my opinions from the house-tops, explain why I am doing this research work; provide a small sample of the links to primary source documents, and present my interpretation of New South Wales legal-historical reality. This is not to say that I confine my opinions to the Preamble, and take a dry, measured, theme-based, detached attitude, in the rest of the work, including in this Index page, and the Chapters, following. My tone throughout is designedly agit-prop, tub-thumping, and loudly shouting, and attempts at all times to ram home its message, in memory of Mayakovsky, the revolutionary poet artist hero.

Goongi, John Roberts (Snr.,) Widjabul Tribe Elder, Bundjalung Nation, gave me the clues to the topic of this Research project, and permission to do the research about Widjabul Tribe history: and by giving me information about his culture and history, attempted to let me see life through Aboriginal eyes. Many of the phrases and concepts I use in my work, I am borrowing from him, in particular, the term "bastardisation", which I often heard him say about Government behaviour towards Aboriginal people from the start. 

To him also I owe my (limited) understanding of the Widjabul/ Bundjalung term gubbah nyugum" . 'Gubbah' is government, 'nyugum' means, I think, that things are of equal value in a trade situation. 'Nyug' is used now in vernacular to also mean money, so that to say 'gubbah nyugum' is to crack a joke. 

Now, if you want to, navigate from here.

 

Goongi, John Roberts (Snr.)

Widjabul Tribe Elder, Bundjalung Nation

(Photograph used with permission of subject and photographer)

[Source: Michael Weekes Photography]

 

CHAPTERS 1-13 follow as works in progress

 

CHAPTER 1

 

1768-1837

 

Go to: Chapter 1, Commentary and documents 

 

Go to: Chapter 1, Documents only

 

 

 

" Bloody invasion, Christianity, and the Vagrancy Act (1836)"

 

 

 

Chapter 1 index, links and summary follows 

 

 

1768-71

·         Captain Cook reports on Aboriginal concepts of value in his Journal during his Voyage in M.M. Bark Endeavour

 

1773  

  • Joseph Banks’ Journal, “Terra Nullius”

  • Joseph Banks’ Journal, “No Idea of Traffick”

1787

  • Governor Phillip's instructions, April 25, 1787 “Conciliation of native affections ..." Governor Phillip is instructed to protect the rights of the Aborigines of New South Wales

Captain PHILLIP, A, R.N. Governor.

12/1/1788-10/12/1792

 

1788

  • The Settlement was sited near "an apparently perennial stream of the purest water"    

  • Proclamation of Colony. Aboriginal people became British Subjects with the arrival of English Law.

( Mabo judgement, 1992, and the ownership of Crown lands in 1788 )

Aboriginal traditional sacred drug and medicine, 1788

 

 

1789

  • Exploration of Hawkesbury and Nepean Rivers

  • Phillip proclaimed Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief over New South Wales   

1790

  • "The natives, too, were hostile. Phillip did his best to treat them kindly, but few of the settlers followed his example; stragglers from the township were killed by way of revenge, and the bush was set on fire whenever the white men turned their stock into it for pasturage." 

1791

  • Grants of land to settlers

 

 

Replica of Cook's ship, the Endeavour

[Source:www.mindspring.com]

 

Captain James Cook

Portrait by John Webber in the National Portrait Gallery, London

[Source: Clark, C.M.H., A History of Australia, Vol.1, Melbourne University Press (1962)

 

Sir Joseph Banks

[Source: www.rbgkew.org.

 

Cook sails past Byron Bay,  (1)

"Banks, take a look at those natives on the beach all hiding their faces!"

 

On the beach at Byron Bay

(2)

"Brothers, quick, hide your eyes! Must be Derangun!" 

(Derangun - bad woman spirit, scary,  white, faceless, walks at night.)  

[1&2, Source of information, John Roberts, Widjabul Elder]

 

Governor Arthur Phillip

From an engraving in the Mitchell Library

[Source: Greenwood, Gordon, Australia (Angus and Robertson, 1955)

 

Sydney Cove, August 1788

from Captain Hunter's sketch

[Source: Jose, AW, History of Australasia Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1813, p.63]  

 

Captain GROSE, F Lieut. (in charge)

11/12/1792-12/12/1794

 

1792

  • The military administer the Colony.

11/12/1792-12/12/1794

Captain PATERSON, NSW Corps Lieut.-Governor (in charge)

13/12/1794-1/9/1795

 

1795

  • 60 men of the New South Wales Corps are sent to the Hawkesbury settlements to combat the Daruk Aborigines. 

 

NSW Corps soldier

[Source: http://www.militarybadges.info]

 

Captain HUNTER, (RN) Governor

 

1796

  • Exploration of Port Hacking

1797

  • Exploration of Tuggerah Lakes

1799

  • Exploration of North Coast, Lachlan River

1800

7/9/1795-27/9/1800

 

Governor Hunter

[Source: Jose, A.W., History of Australasia (Angus and Robertson, 1813)]  

 

Sydney from the West in 1800

[Source: Jose, A.W., History of Australasia ( Angus and Robertson, 1813)]  

 

Captain PG KING, (RN) Governor

26/9/1800-12/8/1806

  • Governor King at first strove to keep peace with the Aboriginals, whom he ' considered the real Proprietors of the soil'

1802

  • Exploration of continental coastline and  Port Phillip Bay

1803

  • Settlement at Risdon, Van Diemen's Land

  • The Sydney Gazette, (Published by Authority), begins publication of news items about the Aborigines in the vicinity of the settlement; Governor King's Standing Orders referring to them; and Military sorties against the Tribes and individuals

1804 

  • Prodigious quantities of mackerel on the coast, harvested by Aborigines 

  • A file of Troopers is sent by the Governor to the Hawkesbury to attack and shoot Aborigines

  • Escaped convicts speared by local Tribesmen

  • Frequent clashes between Tribes and Europeans in Portland Head, Richmond Hill, Georges River, Lane Cove, shooting of two Aborigines at Richmond Hill

  • The Sydney Gazette describes the use of a boomerang

1805

  • Macarthur receives grant of 5,000 acres

  • Summary executions of Aborigines by New South Wales Corps at the direction of Governor King

 

26/9/1800-12/8/1806

 

"How ironic is that ..." -1805-Governor King tries to give hemp pants to the local Aborigines.

[Source: The Nimbin Good Times March 2006]

 

Philip Gidley King

 

[Source: Clark, C.M.H., A History of Australia, Vol.1, Melbourne University Press (1962)

 

The Reverend Samuel Marsden, Magistrate

[Source: Clark, C.M.H., A History of Australia, Vol.1, Melbourne University Press (1962)

 

Captain W Bligh, (RN) Governor

13/8/1806-26/1/1808

 

13/8/1806-26/1/1808

NSW Corps Acting Administrator (Lieut. Col. FOVEAUX)

26/12/1808-28/12/1809

 

26/12/1808-28/12/1809

Major-General L MACQUARIE, Governor

1/1/1810-1/12/1821

 

1812

  • Creation of Governor's Court and Supreme Court, 

  • Select Committee of House of Commons appointed to inquire into condition of New South Wales

1813

  • crossing of Blue Mountains, 

  • exploration Bathurst Plains and Macquarie River

1814

  • Charter of Justice published, 

  • Civil Jurisdiction , Supreme court commenced, 

  • exploration of Berrima district, 

  • name "Australia" substituted for New Holland 

1815

  • Road over the Blue Mountains, 

  • foundation of Bathurst, 

  • exploration of Lachlan River

1817

  • Exploration of Lachlan and Macquarie Rivers, Lake George, Bathurst, Goulburn Plains

1818

  • Exploration of Peel, Hastings, and Manning Rivers and Liverpool Plains

1820

  • Exploration of Clyde River

1821

  • Settlement at Port Macquarie

 

1/1/1810-1/12/1821

 

Governor Macquarie

[Source: Jose, A.W., History of Australasia ( Angus and Robertson, 1813)]  

Sir T BRISBANE, KCB Governor

1/12/1821-1/12/1825

 

1822

  • Governor Brisbane establishes free settlement at Wellington Valley

1823

  • First Australian Constitution, Legislative Council of 5 to 7 persons nominated by the Governor, 

  • encouragement of free settlement, 

  • squatting commenced, 

  • exploration of Murrumbidgee River and Monaro Plains

  • Governor Brisbane allows "the shooting of Aboriginals in batches." 

  • New South Wales proclaimed a Crown Colony, 

  • first land regulations, 

  • Currency act (first Act of Parliament),

1824

  • The first Legislative Council meets, New South Wales constitutes a Crown Colony

  • Introduction of Trial by jury: "the privilege of being tried by his peers was extended to every man", (but not for the Aborigines).

  • Governor Brisbane ordered to make land grants to free settlers, empowered to sell Crown lands under a tender system

  • The Australian Agricultural Company formed, to be granted extensive areas of land at a nominal quit rent and a monopoly of coal-mining in New South Wales in return for an investment of 1,000,000 pounds 

1825

  • Governor Ralph Darling was enjoined to see that the natives were "protected in the full enjoyment of their possessions, [and] preserved from violence and injustice, but also to take measures for "their conversion to the Christian faith and their advancement in civilisation." [Elkin]

  • The formation of a force of Military mounted police"  

  • Extension of New South Wales Westward

  • Governors were financially independent because they controlled the money raised from the sale of Crown land.  

 

1/12/1821-1/12/1825

Colonel STEWART (3rd Regiment) Acting Governor

6/12/1825-18/12/25

6/12/1825-18/12/25

Lieutenant-General R DARLING, Governor

19/12/1825-21/10/1831

 

1825 

  • Governor Darling ordered by Colonial office to permit grants of between 320 and 2,560 acres to private buyers, and expressly permitted the sale of Crown land in lots up to 4,000 acres

 

1826

  • Illawarra settlement established

  • The Black War in Tasmania.  

1827

  • land speculation, exploration of Gwydir, Dumaresque and Condamine Rivers and Darling Downs, 

  • case of R v Lowe determined that Aboriginal people were subject to its jurisdiction when they were in conflict with Europeans

1828

  • Second Constitution; Legislative Council enlarged to 15 members, first census of Europeans, 36,598; 

  • Imperial Act, all laws and statutes in force in England in 1828 apply in New South Wales; 

  • exploration of the Richmond River by Captain Henry Rous  

  • declaration of martial law in Tasmania, Whites were authorized to kill Blacks on sight

 

1829

  • exploration of the Darling River, 

  • case of R v Ballard, "Aborigines are entitled to their own laws" Judge Dowling rules that Aborigines have not consented to their acceptance of British law

  •  Government resumption of Crown and Church Lands  

 

1830

  • exploration of the Murrumbidgee River, 

  • the population of 5,000 Aborigines in Tasmania reduced to 75 

19/12/1825-21/10/1831

 

Sydney and Tasmanian Aborigines

 

(Source: front and back covers of Woolmington J., Aborigines in Colonial Society, Cassell Australia 1973): 1830's, 

 

 

An Aboriginal camp near Port Stephens, NSW, 1830's?

[Source: Driscoll, W.P. and Elphick, E.S.; Birth of a Nation (Rigby 1974)

Colonel LINDSAY, CB Acting Governor

22/10/1831-2/12/1831

 

22/10/1831-2/12/1831

WHIG
Major-General Sir Richard BOURKE, KCB Governor

3/12/1831-5/12/1837


1833

  • The Wellington Missionaries report on the violence of the settlers towards the Aborigines . 

  • Appellate jurisdiction of Privy Council extended to Colony; civilian juries in criminal cases (not for Aborigines.)  

1834

  • Settlement at Twofold Bay, borrowed capital floods into the Colony

1834

  • "Graziers who had well established freehold stations found it abundantly worth while to send flocks out far beyond their accustomed pastures, to graze on good free land" 

  • "The duty of acting upon principles of justice and humanity"

  • Report of the Mission to the Aborigines of New Holland.   

  • "Recognising customary law"  

 

1835

  • exploration and settlement of Port Phillip area

  • The Missionaries report to the Legislative Council and Assembly about the condition of the Aborigines

  • In 1835, John Batman signed two 'treaties' with Kulin people to 'purchase' 600,000 acres of land between what is now Melbourne and the Bellarine Peninsula. In response to these treaties and other arrangements between free settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, such as around Camden, the NSW Governor, Sir Richard Bourke issued a proclamation. Bourke's proclamation established the notion that the land belonged to no-one prior to the British crown taking possession.

 

1836

  • squatting formally recognised, 

  • Wellington Missionaries report on Aboriginal deaths by execution and measles, 

  • case of R v Murrell, English law gave equal protection to Aboriginal people as Europeans

Vagrancy Act (1836)  

  An Act for the Prevention of Vagrancy and for the punishment of Idle and Disorderly Rogues and Vagabonds and incorrigible Rogues in the Colony of New South Wales (6 Geo. IV. No.6) 25 August 1836

 

3/12/1831-5/12/1837

 

Sir Richard Bourke

From a contemporary print in the Mitchell library

[Source: Greenwood, Gordon, Australia (Angus and Robertson, 1955)

 

 

 

John Batman's 'treaty' agreeing that he had purchased 600,000 acres from 8 Tribal chiefs, in return for some blankets, beads, flour, tomahawks, clothes, scissors, looking glasses, and knives. 

[Source: Jose, AW, History of Australasia Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1813, p.63]  

 

 

Lieutenant-Col. K SNODGRASS, Acting Governor
12/7/1837-23/2/1838


1837

  • Ordinance,   (forcibly detaining Aboriginal women)
    Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 18th September, 1837. Sydney Gazette

  • Queen Victoria's reign begins

12/7/1837-23/2/1838

Chapter 2

 

1838 - 1847

 

"Queen Victoria Proclaims Aboriginal Rights, and the Evidence Act is Disallowed" 

 

 

Chapter 2 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

Sir George GIPPS, Governor
WHIG

24/2/1838-11/7/1846

 

1838
Supplying Liquors to Aboriginal Natives (1838), An Act for Consolidating and amending the Laws relating to the Licensing of Public-houses, and for further regulating the Sale and Consumption of Fermented and Spirituous Liquors in New South Wales, 2 Victoria, No. 18, sec. 49. [26th Sept 1838.]

  • Major Nunn and troopers murder unknown number of Aborigines, 

  • Governor Gipps announces that an Inquest shall be held on Aborigines killed by white men, 

  • Mounted police established, 

  • Gipps refers to massacres of aborigines, 

  • Lord Glenelg stresses protection of Aborigines, 

  • Robinson appointed Chief Protector of Aborigines, 

  • execution of the 7 Myall Creek murderers, 

  • The Aborigines Protection Society founded in England, 

Report from the Select Committee on the Present State of the Aborigines,1838 

 

1839  

Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney  (Reissued). Sydney Gazette.
His Excellency has been pleased to report the names of all Persons (forcibly detaining Aboriginal women), "in order that their Licenses may be immediately cancelled, and that they may be prosecuted under the Act, as illegal occupiers of Crown Lands, or otherwise, as the Law directs. By His Excellency's Command"

 

1839 -  

  • Queen Victoria's reign commenced in 1837, so that the Aboriginal subject rights document following must have been one of the first Acts of her reign, denoting its importance.

Queen Victoria's Ordinance on the rights of Aborigines as subjects; 2 Vic. 27 1839 

"where there is a violent death in consequence of a collision with white men, an Inquest or Inquiry is to be held in the same way as if the Deceased had been of European origin"

  • This document is discreetly located, over 2 pages, in tiny print, in amidst the pages of the Crown Lands Unauthorized Occupation Act, 2 Vict 27 1839. 

Standing Orders to the Border Police, 1839  

 

Crown Lands Unauthorised Occupation Act, 2 Vict 27 (1839);  "An Act further to restrain the unauthorized Occupation of Crown Lands and to provide the means of defraying the Expense of the Border Police [ 22nd March, 1839 .]  

  • Her Majesty asserts her right to Alienate the Waste Lands of New South Wales, 

  • Attorney-General's legal opinion of the killing of Aborigines by Major Nunn, 

  • Evidence of Native Witnesses is excluded from the Courts, 

  • Governor LaTrobe given strict instructions re protection of Aborigines, 

An Act to allow the Aboriginal Natives of New South Wales to be received as competent witnesses in Criminal Cases (1839) (disallowed 1844)

 

1840

  • Chief Protector of Aborigines talks about rights of Aborigines to land

  • Royal Instructions on the natural indefeasible property rights of aborigines; 

  • a surveying party, a Commissioner of Crown Lands, and Border Police sent to the Clarence River

An Act to prohibit Natives of New South Wales from having Fire Arms or Ammunition in their possession, without the permission of a Magistrate (1840)(disallowed)


1842

 

New South Wales Constitution Act, 1842

"And be it enacted that out of the said revenue fund there shall be payable every year to Her Majesty her heirs and successors the sum of thirty three thousand pounds for defraying the expenses of the several services and purposes in the schedule marked (A) annexed to this act and a further sum of eighteen thousand six hundred pounds for defraying the expenses of the several services and purposes named in the schedule marked (B) annexed to this act and a further sum of thirty thousand pounds for defraying the expenses of the several services and purposes named in the schedule marked (C) annexed to this act the said sums of thirty three thousand pounds eighteen thousand six hundred pounds and thirty thousand pounds to be issued by the Treasurer of the said Colony in discharge of such warrant or warrants as shall be from time to time directed to him under the hand and seal of the Governor"

Crown Land Sales Act 1842

  • "The Land Act of 1842 saw the creation of reserves on Crown Land for the use of the Aboriginal people." This move by the Government aimed to give Aboriginal people continuing 'secure' occupation of land.

  • Cedar-getters camp at East Ballina (Bundjalung Nation Tribal territory)

  • Moreton Bay proclaimed open to settlement and first sale of Moreton Bay land held in Sydney

1843

  • First Representative Constitution Act 12 Crown nominees and 24 elected members of Legislative Council

1843

  • first general election -

  • Representative Assembly, 

  • Gipps to discontinue grants to the missions 

 

1845

  • Sir Thomas Mitchell reaches Fitzroy Downs, Culgoa, Warrego and Barcoo Rivers

 

24/2/1838-11/7/1846

 

Queen Victoria

 

 

Governor George Gipps

[Source: Jose, A.W.; History of Australasia (Angus and Robertson, 1913)

 

Votes and Proceedings, 18 March 1839; Crown Lands Occupation Act Amendment Bill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Victoria's Ordinance on the rights of Aborigines as subjects; 2 Vic. 27 1839   

(link to transcript)

 

[Source: Acts and Ordinances of NSW (ed. Callaghan) (1844-1852) 3v. in 4 46. Imperial Statutes in Force (ed. Bignold) [1913] 46. New South Wales Legislation in Force]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alphabetical Index to the Subjects of Public General Acts of the Legislature of New South Wales, from 5 Geo. IV to 38 Vic., inclusive

"Aboriginals - Competent Witnesses (Disallowed). Firearms - Prohibiting to (Disallowed). Wandering in Company with. Supply of Liquor to prevention."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Major Mitchell

[Source: Jose, A.W.; History of Australasia (Angus and Robertson, 1913)

 

Sir Maurice O'CONNELL, Acting Governor

12/7/1846-2/8/1846

12/7/1846-2/8/1846

 

Chapter 3

 

1846-1857

 

 

"The Squatters use the New South Wales Native Police to expand their Territories."

 

 

Chapter 3 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

Sir Charles A FITZROY, Governor

3/8/1846-17/1/1855

 

Imperial Act 1846 

  • gave 14 years' lease to squatters in unsettled districts; Wentworth and squatters won most of their demands in the imperial Act, which gave them security ... they could purchase key-points on their runs, such as around the waterholes 

 

1846

  • non-Aboriginal population, census, 154,205

1847 -

  • The Rev. Dr. Lang and GA Robinson, chief protector of Aboriginals state that poisoning by settlers was undoubtedly one cause in the decrease of the aboriginals

 

Crown Land Leases Act 1847 

  • Earl Grey and the Colonial Office surrendered to the squatters, and by the  Orders-In-Council of 1847, the license holders obtained the coveted right to leases for fourteen years of all runs in outlying districts 

 

1848

  • Further North-Western explorations (NSW)

1849

  • another attempt was made to introduce a Bill to allow the Aboriginal Natives of New South Wales to be received as competent witnesses. Again it was defeated on the grounds that Aborigines "had no knowledge of truth or falsehood and were incapable of entertaining one scintilla of anything like religion"

Australian Colonies Act (1850)

Vagrancy Act (1851)  

An Act for the more effectual prevention of Vagrancy and for the punishment of idle and disorderly Persons Rogues and vagabonds and incorrigible Rogues in the Colony of NSW [1st December, 1851] (Illegal to wander with Aborigines)

 

1851

  • Colony of Victoria (Port Phillip District) separated from New South Wales

1852 -

  • An Act to Amend the Law of Evidence continues to exclude Aboriginal people from giving evidence in Court

1853 -

New Constitution Act, 1853

 

"on behalf of Her Majesty with respect to any lands situate within the said Colony in cases where such contracts promises or engagements shall have been lawfully made before the time at which this Act shall take effect within this Colony nor to disturb or in any way interfere with or prejudice any vested or other rights which have accrued or belong to the licensed occupants or lessees of any Crown Lands within or without the Settled Districts"

 

"The qualifications for Electors of the Legislative Assembly shall be as follows—Every man of the age of twenty-one years being a natural born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty or legally made a denizen of New South Wales and having a freehold estate in possession situate within the district for which his vote is to be given of the clear value of one hundred pounds sterling money ..."

  • The Act establishes the profitable ownership by the Queen of all the Crown lands in the colony, extinguishes Aboriginal title while affirming squatters' title; establishes 2 Chambers, the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly, (dominated by squatters and land profiteers). (S.1) excludes Aborigines from franchise by property, rental or lease qualification,  (S.13) describes the Electoral Districts which are actually the Tribal territories of still living Tribes, (S.15) refers to "Christian" names and the published Electoral Rolls, (S.16) makes it legal for the Legislature to regulate the buying and selling of land, referred to as "Waste" lands (S.50) &c.

  • Wentworth, in Parliament, denies the policy of Government interference in violence towards the aborigines by settlers.

1854


  • A further Act to Amend the Law of Evidence  continues to exclude Aboriginal people from giving evidence in Court

3/8/1846-17/1/1855

 

WC Wentworth

[Source: Hartley Grattan, C; Australia, University of California Press (1947)]

 

 

Tracks of the European explorers, 

South Eastern Australia, to 1846

[Source: Jose, A.W.; History of Australasia (Angus and Robertson, 1913)

 

Oliver Fry, Crown Lands Commissioner, Clarence River, about 1850

[Source: O'Sullivan J, Mounted police in N.S.W., Rigby (1973)

 

 

Military police, armed with guns and swords, attacking Aborigines, about 1850

[Source: O'Sullivan J, Mounted police in N.S.W., Rigby (1973)

Sir William Thomas DENISON, KCB, Governor

20/1/1855-22/1/1861

 

1855 -

  • New Constitution inaugurated; 

  • Responsible government, reflecting the power of non-Aboriginal landholders, and excluding Aborigines

20/1/1855-22/1/1861

 

 

 

 

 

Stuart Alexander DONALDSON, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

6/6/1856-25/8/1856

 

1856

  • First elective Parliament and responsible Ministry

  • civil registration of births, deaths and marriages for non-Aborigines

  • Census, non-Aborigines - 252,649

  • Production of all correspondence about the Native Police is called for in Parliament

  • projected separation of the Northern districts of the Colony of New South Wales and their erection into a distinct colony, thereby cutting through the Northern district Aboriginal (Bundjalung) Tribal territory

6/6/1856-25/8/1856

Charles (later Sir Charles) COWPER, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

26/8/1856-2/10/1856

26/8/1856-2/10/1856

Henry W PARKER; Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

3/8/1856-7/9/1857

 

1856 -

  • The establishment of a Select Committee on the operation of the Native Police moved and accepted 

 

1857 -

  • Electoral lists and rolls printed, Aborigines are excluded 

  • Massacres of Aborigines at Woodlark Island; 5/1/57

  • Claims by Northern Settlers for Provisions for Native Police; m. 4/2/57

  • Report on Native Police; tabled. Pap. 29/1/57

  • Native Police Force; m. 7/2/57; tab. Pap. 7/2/57

Native Police Force, Select Committee Report and Recommendations; 7/2/57

  • Native Police Force; 11/2/57

  • Massacre at Woodlark Island: request to GG for correspondence: m. 11/2/57

  • Native Police, request from Governor- General for new estimate; 18/2/57

  • Killing of Blacks by Native Troopers; tab. pap. 28/2/57; 

  • Blankets for Aboriginals; q. 27/3/57  

3/8/1856-7/9/1857

Chapter 4

 

1857- 1875

 

 

"The Crown Lands Alienation Bill (1861) 'makes no provision for aborigines'." 

 

 

Chapter 4 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

Charles (later Sir Charles) COWPER, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

7/9/1857- 26/10/1859

1857 - (Parliamentary Votes and proceedings)

  • Killing of Blacks by Native Troopers tab. pap. 21/10/57  

  • Woodlark Island Massacres, minutes of evidence, and Appendix

  • Murders, Dawson River

  • Letter, Brisbane, murders by Native Police

  • Native Police Expense, Bathurst

  • Murder of Aborigines

  • Murders by Aborigines

  • Native Police

  • Woodlark Island Massacres

  • Sentences on Aborigines

  • Aborigines Right to Vote

1858

An Act for the further amendment of the Law of Evidence (1858)

  • Aborigines still not allowed to give evidence, either sworn or unsworn, in Court

 

Electoral Reform Act (1858)

  • Manhood suffrage and vote by ballot, for non-Aborigines

 

New South Wales Legislative Assembly, 1858. Report from the Select Committee on Murders by the Aborigines on the Dawson River.

 

 

7/9/1857- 26/10/1859

William FORSTER; Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

27/10/1859-8/3/1860

 

1859 -

  • Moreton Bay (Queensland) proclaimed a separate colony

  • exploration of Darling River

  • opinion of the ATTORNEY-GENERAL; that aboriginal natives not qualified to give evidence in a court of justice, were not entitled to have their names inserted in any Electoral List, and to vote for members of Parliament

  • Member of Parliament says that if it turns out that if under the present electoral Act Aborigines were not disqualified, it would make it necessary to bring in a short Act to disqualify them 

27/10/1859-8/3/1860

 

Sir John ROBERTSON; Secretary for Lands (also referred to as Prime Minister)

9/3/1860-9/1/1961

 

1861 -

Crown Lands Alienation Bill, Parliamentary debate, 1861

  • A member of Parliament complains that under the Crown Lands Alienation Bill ("Robertson's Land Act") that no provision is made for aborigines 

An Act for regulating the Alienation of Crown Lands, 1861

  • Sir John Robertson's Land Act - free selection before survey

  • Vagrants jailed with hard labour for camping with aborigines

  • Member of Parliament says that the blankets for aborigines are often distributed too late in the season, and are sometimes seen on the beds of magistrates and constables.

  • Reserves were set apart by the Governor in Council by notice in the Gazette under State authority derived from S 5 of the Crown Lands (Alienation) Act 1861: no reference made to Aboriginal people. In S 5, such reservation was effected under the power to reserve lands "for any other public purpose". Temporary reservations could be revoked by notice in the Gazette.

9/3/1860-9/1/1961

Charles (later Sir Charles) COWPER, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

10/1/1861-15/10/63

 

1862 -

Sale of Liquors Licensing Act (1862)

 

Real Property Act (1862) (Torrens Title)

  • Free selection before survey comes into operation

  • By 1862 and the establishment of "free selection" on the Clarence and at Moreton Bay, only 25% of the Aboriginal population of the Bundjalung Tribe alive in 1828, when Rous arrived in the Northern Region, still survive 

10/1/1861-15/10/63

 

James (later Sir James) MARTIN, Attorney-General (also referred to as Prime Minister)

16/10/1863-2/2/1865

16/10/1863-2/2/1865

Charles (later Sir Charles) COWPER, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

3/2/1865-21/1/1865

 

3/2/1865-21/1/1865

 

Richmond River (Bundjalung Nation) Tribe members, 1865

[Source: Oakes, M.J., The Aborigines of the Richmond Area (Richmond River Historical Society, Pamphlet No. 2]

James (later Sir James) MARTIN, Attorney-General (also referred to as Prime Minister)

22/1/1866-26/10/1868

 

1866 -

  • Aborigines and Alcohol; petition to Parliament 22/2/66  

  • petition from the moderator and clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church of New South Wales, praying that the law might be so amended as to prevent any sale or supply of intoxication liquors to the aborigines.  

  • A petition, from the moderator of the Presbyterian Synod, praying for the re-imposition of the prohibition upon the supply of intoxicating drinks to the aborigines

 

Supply of Liquors to Aborigines Prevention Act (1867)

 

22/1/1866-26/10/1868

John (later Sir John) ROBERTSON, Premier
27/8/1868-12/1/1870

27/8/1868-12/1/1870

 

 

 Sir Charles COWPER, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

13/1/1870-15/12/1870

13/1/1870-15/12/1870

Sir James Martin, Attorney General (also referred to as Prime Minister)

16/12/1870-135/1872

 

1871 -

  • Forest Reserves established

  • Non-Aboriginal census - 503,981

16/12/1870-135/1872

Henry Parkes, Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

14/5/1872-8/2/1875

 

1874

  • Daniel Matthews established the Maloga (later the Cummeragunja) private mission near Moama

14/5/1872-8/2/1875

 

Sir Henry Parkes

[Source: Hartley Grattan, C; Australia, University of California Press (1947)]

 

Chapter 5

 

1875 - 1899

 

 

"Evidence Further Amendment Act: 'declarations in lieu of oaths permitted.'" 

 

 

Chapter 5 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

John ROBERTSON, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

09/2/1875 - 21/03/1877

 

Evidence Further Amendment Act (1876)  (40 Vic. No. 8)

  • Section 3 - Aborigines of New South Wales attain the right to give unsworn evidence in courts of law, declarations in lieu of oaths permitted 

 

1876 -

  • Select Committee on condition of the aborigines. (19.12. 1876)

  • On May 7, 1876, Truganini, the last full-blood Black person in Tasmania, died at seventy-three years of age.  ... Between 1803 and 1876 the Black aborigines of Tasmania were completely destroyed.

  • "But now the blacks have disappeared, great numbers of native dogs have been poisoned, and water has been artificially conserved for the sustenance of livestock,- all of which has proved as conducive to the increase of wild animals as to the multiplication of sheep and cattle" 

09/2/1875 - 21/03/1877

Henry PARKES Colonial Secretary (also referred to as Prime Minister)

 

1877-

  • Royal Commission appointed 'to inquire into the present condition of the aborigines of the colony, and advise as to the best means of caring for and dealing with them in the future'

 

22/3/1877-16/8/1877

Sir John ROBERTSON, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

17/8/1877-17/12/1877

James Squire FARNELL; Secretary for Lands (also known as Prime Minister)

18/12/1877-20/12/1878

Sir Henry PARKES, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

Licensing Act (1882)

 

 

21/12/.78 - 29/12/81

Sir John ROBERTSON, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

29/12/1881-19/8/1882

 

1880-

  • Aboriginal Progressive Association formed another mission near Darlington Point

  • Appointment of protectors of the blacks .. "protection of the aboriginal natives from oppression and outrage on the part of Her Majesty's demoralised white subjects in New South Wales"

  • "The whole matter of the protection of the aborigines of the colony was under the consideration of the Government."

  • Parliamentary proceedings refers to 'outrages inflicted in consequence of the aboriginal women being subjected to the lust of the white man.'

  • Sir John Robertson says, 'Let him go to Rose Bay and there he would see young (Aboriginal) children—of course in the guardianship of their parents— and  any man  might  have them for a shilling.' 

  • Mr Ogylvie (owned Baryulgil, Grafton) said 'Neither the colonists nor the Government could be charged with having illtreated them, though the Government perhaps had not done as much as it might have done in their behalf'

  • Mr. FOSTER thought the state of the aboriginal inhabitants of the colony was a blot on the British name. We came here as British subjects and took up the country in millions of acres appropriating it to our own use, and the smallness of the amount we had contributed to the welfare of those we dispossessed was disgraceful

29/12/1881-19/8/1882

Sir Henry PARKES, Colonial Secretary, also Secretary for Lands (also known as Prime Minister)

19/8/1882-4/1/1883

 

1882 -

Licensing Act 1882 (45 Vic. No. 14) [Repealed by Act 18, 1898]

  • supply of spirituous liquors to aboriginal natives of any age forbidden

  • George Thornton, Protector of Aborigines, carries out a census of Aboriginal population

  •  Premier and Colonial Secretary recommend the appointment of a Board for the Protection of Aborigines.

  • Questions in Parliament about starvation among Aborigines and abuse by white settlers provoke the first Government expenditure upon the Aboriginal Protection Board

  • Maloga and Warangesda  Stations. "The Association for the Protection of the Aborigines had  taken into its  care the conduct of these  two  stations"

  • Select Committee "Inquiry into working of aboriginal mission stations at Warangesda and Maloga" (23.6.1882) (8.8.1882), 

 

19/8/1882-4/1/1883

 

Aborigines in Police custody, chained

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sir Alexander STUART, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

5/1/1883-6/10/1885

 

1883 -

  • Parliamentary proceedings, Brewarrina Aboriginal Mission,  

  • Aborigines removed to America, 

  • Protectorate of Aborigines [21 Feb 1883] 

  • Legislative Assembly; Ministerial Statement, Treatment of Aborigines [4 Jan 1883] 

  • Legislative Assembly; 21 February 1883  

  •  

1884 -

  • Land legislation restricting sales by auction - Land Act giving fixity of tenure to pastoral lessees

  • Mr O'Connor says in Parliament 'The aborigines were the true natives of the colony, but by our audacity and by the spirit of adventure of our race had supplanted them.  We had taken lands from them, and we were bound to attend to the wants of those who were left.   It was a dishonor to the country that a vote for the sustenance of the aborigines  should  be granted conditionally on the public subscribing an amount equal  to half of  that which was voted by Parliament.'

  • Mr White says, 'A  great  many of them are without  food and  blankets now !'

  •  The Honorable George Thornton was appointed Protector of the Aborigines ; but as the work opened up it was found desirable to intrust to a board the duties of the protector. That board consisted of six members, of which the Honorable George Thornton was elected the first chairman.  

  • Sir John Robertson, is the patron of the Society for the Protection of the Aborigines 

1885 -

  • Territorial division of the colony, taking no account of Aboriginal Tribal boundaries, 

  • Local Land Boards established

5/1/1883-6/10/1885

George Richard DIBBS; Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

7/10/1885-9/10/1885

7/10/1885-9/10/1885

Sir John ROBERTSON, Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

22/12/1885-22/2/1886

22/12/1885-22/2/1886

Sir Patrick Alfred JENNINGS; Colonial Treasurer (also known as Prime Minister)

26/2/1886-19/1/1887

26/2/1886-19/1/1887

Sir Henry PARKES, Colonial Secretary, also Secretary for Lands (also known as Prime Minister)

25/1/1887-16/1/1889

 

1888 -

  • Centenary celebration of settlement in Australia

 

25/1/1887-16/1/1889

George Richard DIBBS; Colonial Secretary (also known as Prime Minister)

17/1/1889-7/3/1889

17/1/1889-7/3/1889

Sir Henry PARKES, Colonial Secretary and Registrar of Records (also known as Prime Minister)

8/3/1889-22/10/1891

8/3/1889-22/10/1891

Sir George Richard DIBBS; Colonial Secretary and Registrar of Records (also known as Prime Minister)

23/10/1891-2/8/1894

23/10/1891-2/8/1894

FREETRADE:
George Houston REID, Colonial Treasurer and Collector of Internal Revenue (also known as Prime Minister)

3/8/1894 - 13/09/1899

1897

Native Flora Protection Bill, Votes and Proceedings, debate

 

1898
Coloured Races Restriction and Regulation Act (1898)

"An Act to apply and extend certain provisions of the Chinese Restriction and Regulation Act of 1888 to other Coloured Races, to repeal section 15 of that Act, and for other purposes incidental to or consequent on the before-mentioned objects. [Reserved, 23rd November, 1896.] (This Act will be printed when it receives the Royal Assent.)"

Liquor Act (1898)

 

Australasian Federation Enabling Act Referendum,1898 

 

Evidence Act (1898)

  • The Evidence Act (1898) repeals Section 1. of the Evidence Further Amendment Act (1876) which enabled Aborigines to give unsworn evidence in Court. (Note: link provides list of Evidence Acts previous to 1898 )

3/8/1894 - 13/09/1899

Chapter 6

 

1899 - 1904

 

 

"Aborigines specifically excluded from the Welfare State"

 

 

Chapter 6 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

PROTECTIONIST:
William John LYNE, Colonial Treasurer and Collector of Internal Revenue (also known as Prime Minister)

14/9/1899 - 27/3/1901


Real Property Act (1900)

 

1900

Old Age Pensions Act 1900

  • Old-age pensions instituted - Section 51 (d) specifically excludes Aborigines 

 

14/9/1899 - 27/3/1901

NON-LABOR PROGRESSIVE:
John SEE, Premier

28.03.01 - 14.06.04

1901 

An Act to consolidate the Acts for the prevention of Vagrancy.    [4th October, 1901.]

  • " 3. In this Act unless the context or subject-matter otherwise "Aboriginal" means an aboriginal native of New South "Wales. Idle or disorderly person " means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection one of section four, " Incorrigible rogue" means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection three of section four. "Justice" means justice of the peace. " Rogue and vagabond" means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection two of section four .."

Commonwealth Posts and Telegraph Act of 1901 

  • Section 16: no contract or arrangement for the carriage of mails was to be entered into on behalf of the Commonwealth unless it contained a condition that only white labour was employed in such carriage. Under Section 4 of the Commonwealth Franchise Act of 1901 no aboriginal native of Australia .... was entitled to have his name placed on the electoral roll unless so entitled by Section 41 of the Constitution which conferred the Commonwealth franchise on all entitled to be enrolled in their State. 

 

1902 

An Act to consolidate the Acts for the prevention of Vagrancy.    [4th October, 1902.]"

 

  • In this Act unless the context or subject-matter otherwise "Aboriginal" means an aboriginal native of New South "Wales. Idle or disorderly person " means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection one of section four, " Incorrigible rogue" means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection three of section four. "Justice" means justice of the peace. " Rogue and vagabond" means every person who commits any offence mentioned in subsection two of section four ..."

Fisheries Act 1902

  • This made Act Fish traps illegal, and says that "... underweight and undersize fish, shall be forfeited and be disposed of in accordance with the regulations ...The provisions of this section shall not apply to any aboriginal taking or being in possession of fish for his own consumption".

Constitution Act 1902 (N.S.W.)

  • This Act means that "the legislature of New South Wales has power to make laws for the peace, welfare and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever" 

  • Mr Norton makes an appeal on behalf of the wretched, maltreated aboriginals on Brungle Station, ... in order that the deplorable condition in which these aborigines are, may be remedied. The Premier, himself, was present, and Mr. Norton asked  him to take note of this matter. "The aborigines on Brungle Station are being grossly mistreated and badly fed ..."

  • Aboriginal rations from the Aborigines Protection Board: "A full ration of 8lb flour, 2 lb sugar, and ½ pound tea to each adult. and a half ration to each child ..."

  • Women in New South Wales are granted the right to vote (excluding Aboriginal women)

 

1903 

Legislative Council Votes and Proceedings; debate, Aborigines.

  • "The right of aborigines to travel free on trams was never recognised. It has been restricted lately, however, in consequence of numbers of aborigines coming to La Perouse from country stations, their constant visits to the city leading to disorder and intemperance."  

Native Animals Protection Bill 1903 Legislative Council Votes and Proceedings; debate.

  • Mr JCL Fitzpatrick asked the Secretary for Mines and Agriculture-"(1) in view of the wholesale and ruthless destruction of marsupials and other animals indigenous to this country at present being carried on. will he introduce legislation of a character calculated to protect such animals during certain seasons? (2) What was the value of kangaroo, wallaby and opossum skins put upon the market last year?" ... 

  • "The Hon. HC Dangar is surprised to any member of the kangaroo  tribe included in the schedule. The sooner they were all exterminated the better it would be. They were hideous, useless brutes. .. We had passed measures offering the pastoralists a premium for the destruction of these pests, and here we were passing a bill to protect them."  

1904

Infant Protection Act, 1904

 

28.03.01 - 14.06.04

 

Photographs of Aborigines in irons showing the common practice of chaining Aborigines in Police custody.

 

 

Chapter 7

 

1904 - 1922

 

 

"Three so-called Aborigines Protection Acts, and exclusion from voting."

 

 

Chapter 7 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

LIBERAL-REFORM:
Joseph Hector CARRUTHERS, Premier

30.08.1904 - 01.10.1907

 

1905
Liquor (Amendment) Act 1905

  • "(4)  For the purposes of this section, the expression "aboriginal native of Australia," means any full blooded aboriginal native of Australia, and any person apparently having an admixture of aboriginal blood who— (a) is in receipt of rations or other aid from the Aborigines Protection  Board;   or (b) is residing on a reserve granted for the use of aboriginal natives of Australia."

Neglected Children and Juvenile Offenders Act 1905

  • The Act enables the Government to extend its control over Aboriginal children

 

30.08.1904-01.10.1907

LIBERAL:
Charles Gregory WADE, Premier

02.10.07 - 20.10.09

1909                                                                                                     

Aborigines Protection Act 1909                                                         "An Act to provide for the protection and care of aborigines; to repeal the    Supply of Liquors Aborigines Prevention Act; to amend the Vagrancy   Act. 1902, and the Police Offences (Amendment) Act, 1908; and for purposes consequent thereon or incidental thereto. [Assented to, 20th December, 1909.]" 

  •  reconstitutes the Aborigines Protection Board. The Inspector-General of Police is now the Chairman.

  • previous to 1909, the legislative provisions that could readily be used by the Board to control the Aboriginal people were the various Licensing Acts: Supply of Liquors to Aborigines Prevention Act (1867); Licensing Act (1882); Liquor Act (1902); Liquor (Amendment) Act (1905); the Vagrancy Act (1901) and the

    Act to consolidate the Acts for the prevention of Vagrancy, (1902)

     

02.10.07 - 20.10.09

LABOR:
James Sinclair Taylor McGOWEN, Premier

20.10.10 - 29. 06.13

1912
Liquor Act (1912)

 

20.10.10 - 29. 06.13

LABOR:
William Arthur HOLMAN, Premier

1913
Amended Regulations re Wages of Apprentices (1913)

1915

Aborigines Protection Amending Act (1915)

  • This Act punished Aboriginal children who "refused to go to the person to whom the Board had apprenticed him".

30.06.13 - 15.11.16

NATIONALIST:
William Arthur HOLMAN, Premier
15/11/1916-12/4/1920

 

1918
Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act (1918)

  • This Act Amended the Aborigines Protection Act, 1909, and the Aborigines Protection Amending Act, 1915


Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (No. 27) 

  • excludes Aboriginal people from being on the electoral roll or voting

Local Government Act 1919 No. 14

15/11/1916-12/4/1920

LABOR 

John STOREY 

13/4/1920-5/10/1921

 

Stamp Duties Act 1920

 

13/4/1920-5/10/1921

LABOR

James DOOLEY

 

5/10/1921-13/4/1922

Chapter 8

 

1922 - 1952

 

 

"Aborigines found guilty of being Aborigines, but declared to be British subjects (again)"

 

 

Chapter 8 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

NATIONALIST:
George Warburton FULLER, Premier

13/4/1922 - 07/6/1925

 

1923
Child Welfare Act, (1923)

 

1924
Statute Law Revision Act (1924)

 

13/4/1922 - 07/6/1925

LABOR

John Thomas LANG, Premier

17/6/1925-18/10/1927

 

17/6/1925-18/10/1927

NATIONALIST

Thomas BAVIN, Premier

18/10/1927-3/11/1930

 

1929

  • Compulsory voting is introduced in New South Wales. Aboriginal people are still excluded from voting under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (No. 27).

18/10/1927-3/11/1930

LABOR

John Thomas LANG, Premier

4/11/1930-13/5/1935

 

4/11/1930-13/5/1935

UNITED AUSTRALIA PARTY:
Bertram Sydney Barnsdale STEVENS, Premier

13/05/1932-05/08/1939

1935
Police Regulation Amendment Act (1935)

 

1936


Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1936 

(Note: Parliamentary debate on Bill, updated 27/09/2008 )

 

"18a. In any proceeding for an offence against this Act or upon a breach of a regulation made thereunder, the averment in the information or complaint that any person therein named or referred to is an aborigine or the reference in the information or complaint to such person as an aborigine shall he sufficient evidence of the truth of such averment or reference unless the contrary is shown to the satisfaction of the court."

  • Mr. LANG (immediately previous Labor Premier) : "We are not paying them much for the use of their country!" Mr. ARDlLL (UAP, Government): "Unfortunately, we are not."

     

  • The Act gives even broader powers to the Police and Board, enabling the New South Wales Government to extend its control more than ever over Aboriginal people. 

1937

  • The Legislative Assembly of the Parliament of New South Wales sets up a Select Committee on the Aborigines Protection Board

1938

  • The Public Service Board begins an Inquiry into the Aborigines Protection Board

 

13/05/1932-05/08/1939

UAP

Alexander MAIR, Premier

5/8/1939-16/5/1941

 

5/8/1939-16/5/1941

LABOR:
William John McKELL, Premier
16/5/1941 - 06/2/1947

 

1940

Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1940

  • This Act is even more fascist than the 1936 version. Mad. The Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1940 (No. 12) reconstitutes the Aborigines Protection Board as the Aborigines Welfare Board. The Under Secretary of the Colonial Secretary's Department is now the Chairman.

1941

  • The  Commonwealth Government extends child endowment benefits to all Aboriginal people who are not nomadic or supported by the Commonwealth or a State

1942

Commonwealth Powers Act (1942) (number 18 of 1943); 

  • Commonwealth given State's powers over Aborigines for 5 post war years.  

1943

Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act (1943)

  • Words fail me. Mad. "The Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1943 (No. 13) provides for the appointment of two Aboriginal people to the Board" 

Liquor (Amendment) Act (1946)

 

16/5/1941 - 06/2/1947

 

 

LABOR

James McGIRR, Premier

6/12/1947-2/4/1952

 

1948 

The Commonwealth Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 (No. 83) 

  • All Aborigines are now declared British subjects and Australian citizens

1951

  • Commonwealth Government calls a Native Welfare Conference with the States (Victoria and Tasmania do not attend). The Conference endorses the principle of assimilation.

 

6/12/1947-2/4/1952

[See especially, CHAPTER XXV, Elkin, A.P, Ph.D., Native Peoples]

Chapter 9

 

1952 - 1965

 

 

"Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act 1963: gulag provisions remain intact"

 

 

Chapter 9 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

LABOR:
John Joseph CAHILL, Premier

2/4/1952 - 22.10.1959

 

1953 

  • The Senate of the Commonwealth Parliament sets up a Select Committee on Aboriginal Voting Rights

1957

 

Attachment of Wages Limitation Act (1957)

 

2/4/1952 - 22.10.1959

LABOR:
Robert James HEFFRON, Premier 

23/10/1959 - 30/4/1964

1962

  • Commonwealth Electoral Act is amended so that all Aboriginal people may vote


1963

Aborigines Protection (Amendment) Act (1963)

  • The Act amends the previous Acts by omitting only a few (approx. 10) of the provisions of the Aborigines Protection Act, 1909-1943 but leaves the rest intact (to do with the control of Aboriginal children and Aboriginal income and ownership of property etc. etc.) 

23/10/1959 - 30/4/1964

LABOR:
John Brophy RENSHAW, Premier 
30/4/1964 - 13/5/1965


1965 

  • Commonwealth - State Conference of Aboriginal Affairs Ministers endorses Assimilation Policy as national policy


  • Freedom Rides throughout northern New South Wales

 

  • The Parliament of New South Wales sets up a Joint Select Committee on Aboriginal Welfare

Adoption of Children Act 1965 

 

30/4/1964 - 13/5/1965

Chapter 10

 

1965 - 1976

 

 

"Referendum - Aborigines now officially exist for the Census, 

but remain Wards of State"

 

 

Chapter 10 index, links and summary follows. 

 

LIBERAL:
Robin William ASKIN, Premier

13/5/1965 - 03/1/1975

 

1967

  • Commonwealth Referendum (27 May 1967) passes, and  changes the Australian Constitution to remove the impediment to the Commonwealth Government making special laws with respect to Aboriginal people and to remove the impediments to counting Aboriginal people in the Census.

  • Directorate of Aboriginal Welfare is set up in the Department of Child Welfare and Social Welfare.

1969

Aborigines Act 1969 

  • abolishes the Aborigines Welfare Board. All Aboriginal children under the care of the Board now become Wards of the State.

National Parks and Wildlife (Amendment) Act (1969)

1971

  • Commonwealth Government sets up the Ministry for Environment, Aborigines, and the Arts

1972 

  • Aboriginal Tent Embassy is set up on the lawns in front of Parliament House in Canberra 

 

  • New Labor Commonwealth Government sets up the first separate Ministry and Department of Aboriginal Affairs

1973
Trustees Audit Act (1912-1973)

Local Government Act (1973)

Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Act (1973)

Hunter District Water, Sewerage and Drainage Act (1973)

Broken Hill Water, Sewerage and Drainage Act (1973)

Land Tax Management Act (1973)

1974

Crown Lands and other Acts (Reserves) Amendment Act (1974)

National Parks and Wildlife Act (1974)

 

13/5/1965 - 03/1/1975

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Front cover

Rowley, C.D. The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, (Penguin Australia, 1972)

 

 

Front Cover 

Oakes, MJ The Aborigines of the Richmond Area; (Richmond River Historical Society Pamphlet No.2)]

LIBERAL

Thomas Lancelot LEWIS, Premier

3/2/1975-23/1/1976

 

1975

  • Title to Missions and Reserves in New South Wales is handed over to the Aboriginal Lands Trust

1976 

  •  the Department of Health sets up an Aboriginal Health Unit 

3/2/1975-23/1/1976

LIBERAL

Sir Eric Archibald WILLIS, Premier

23/1/76-14/5/1976

Chapter 11

 

1976 - 1988

 

 

"Anti Discrimination and Land Rights Acts fail to restore Aboriginal rights"

 

 

Chapter 11 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

LABOR:
Neville Kenneth WRAN, Premier

14/5/76 - 04/7/86

 

1977
Anti Discrimination Act (1977)

Local (Rating) Amendment Act (1977)

Heritage Acts (1977)

1978 

  • The Legislative Assembly of the Parliament of New South Wales sets up a Select Committee on Aborigines (Note: to find)

1979
Land and Environment Court Act (1979)

1980
Aboriginal Land Rights Act and Amendments (1980)

Teaching Services Act (1980)

1982

  • Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs (New South Wales) is established

1983
Aboriginal Land Rights Regulation Act (1983)

Crown Lands (Validation of Revocations) Act (1983)

NSW Land Rights Act (1983) (No. 42) 

  • revokes any dedication or reservation under the Crown Lands Consolidation Act 1913 or the Western Lands Act 1901 pursuant to transfers of land to an Aboriginal Land Council

1984
NSW Land Rights Act (Amendments) Act (1984)

 

14/5/76 - 04/7/86

 

 

 

 

Land Claims in NSW

Reprinted by the NSW Aboriginal Land Council

May, 1981

This book is a collection of Land Claims made by Aboriginal communities in New South Wales ..."Aboriginal people in this State had to start fighting for their land ... in 1770 when Captain Cook began the white invasion. Since then whites have taken our land with guns and with laws ..."

LABOR:
Barrie John UNSWORTH, Premier

1987 

  • Commonwealth Government sets up the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody

Community Welfare Act (1987)

 Children (Detention Centres) Regulation (1988) (
Note: check date)

 

04.07.86 - 25.03.88

 

Chapter 12

 

1988 - 1995

 

 

"Mabo overturns Terra Nullius, but Native Title Acts validate land seizures anyway"

 

 

Chapter 12 index, links and summary follows. 

 

 

LIBERAL:
Nicholas Frank GREINER, Premier

25.03.88 - 24.06.92

 

 

1988 

  • Bicentenary of the arrival of the First Fleet

 

  • Office of Aboriginal Affairs established in the Premier's Department


Hawkesbury Local Environmental Plan (1989)

Technical and Further Education Commission Act (1965)

1990 

Aboriginal Land Rights (Revival of Financial Provision) Act 1990 (No. 32)


1991 

  • Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody reports

 

Board of Adult and Community Education Act (1990)

 

25.03.88 - 24.06.92

 

"Rivers of Blood"

"Massacres of the Northern Rivers Aborigines and their resistance to the white occupation 1838 - 1870"

By Rory Medcalf (Adapted from a series published in THE NORTHERN STAR), 1989

LIBERAL:
John Fahey

 

1992 Mabo 

  • the decision of the High Court recognises the concept of native title and overturns the doctrine of terra nullius (the notion that Australia was empty and owned by nobody until British settlement)

1993

  • Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs is re-established. It oversees the Office of Aboriginal Affairs and the NSW Aboriginal Land Council.

Commonwealth Native Title Act 1993 (No. 110)

 

Keating's Redfern Speech

1994


Native Title (New South Wales) Act 1994 (No. 45)


Denis Walker v the State of New South Wales

 

1992 - 1995

Chapter 13

 

1995 - 2005

 

incomplete

 

Chapter 13 index, links and summary follows. 

 

LABOR:
Robert John CARR, Premier

04.04.95 - 2005


1995 


Aboriginal Land Rights Amendment Act 1995 (No. 39)

Children (Detention Centres) Regulation (1995)

National Parks and Wildlife (Land Management Regulation) (1995)

  • Office of Aboriginal Affairs is abolished and the Department of Aboriginal Affairs is established

  • National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families commences

1996

Aboriginal Land Rights Regulation (1996)

 

National Parks and Wildlife Amendment (Aboriginal Ownership) Act 1996 (No. 142) 

  • National Parks and Wildlife Amendment (Aboriginal Ownership) Act 1996 (No. 142) comes into effect, amending the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983. It establishes a Register of Aboriginal Owners by the Registrar, Aboriginal Land Rights Act.

  • Wik decision of the High Court establishes that leases granted by the Crown do not extinguish Aboriginal land rights

1997

Col Markham, MP, speech, to the National Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation and the New South Wales State Reconciliation Committee.1997 

  • Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families

State Environment Planning Policy-Rural Land sharing Communities (1998)

 Lismore Local Environment Plan 2000 (No. 173 2000)

2001-2005 (incomplete)

 

04.04.95 - 2005