Chapter 3.  

August 1846 – October 1857  

 

 

 

"The Squatters use the New South Wales Native Police to expand their Territories."

 

 

 

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Work in progress. Updated 17/04/2006 

Note: This web page is part of a research blog, and will expand.

 

GA Robinson, Chief Protector of Aborigines, Report to Governor La Trobe in 1846

Documents

1846  

GA Robinson, Chief Protector of Aborigines, Reports to Governor La Trobe in 1846 (from hand-written document)

(Page missing ... must find)

... the Aborigines to a reasonable share in the Soil, from a conviction that it was Firstly not necessary, whilst the hands of the Crown were held, under yearly License and subject to the surveillance of Government Commissioner and subject to the surveillance of Government Commissioners and second because it was not desirable to raise what might have been considered at that time, a vexatious question. Now however that a probability exists of the waste Lands being alienated and leased to emigrants for a period of Years, I think I should be guilty of a dereliction of duty were I to omit bringing this subject under the Notice of Her Majesty's Government and first I would respectfully suggest that land be reserved to be held by the Government (on behalf) of the Natives. 2nd. That the four Reserves named in the margin (obscure) selected by me in NSW and sanctioned by His Excellency, for the Western District with the Reserve on the Barwon, be retained for the purposes mentioned.

3rd. That other Reserves for the North Western District in addition to the Loddon be selected - the same for the Goulburn and South East District including Gipps Land - A Paper on the Appropriation of Crown lands I beg to Append I enclose -

4th. The future protection and support of the Aboriginal Natives would seem to require fixed Localities, 1. Because the Natives under the late Regulations were said to have no right in the property of the Soil, and were liable to be driven away from their own Lands ..."

 

Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy  

"Sir George Gipps was succeeded as Governor by Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy, in whose tenure of office occurred several of the most important events in the history of Australia ... the establishment of Responsible Government in 1855-6.."

[Source: Coghlan, T.A., A.M., Inst. C.E., Government Statistician; The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales 1887-88 (Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer, Phillip-Street. George Robinson and Co. 361 George-Street. 1888) Page 25 ],

 

"The race was doomed to destruction"

"There were in all six prime causes, anyone of which would probably enough have led to their extinction: the introduction of  European diseases; frequent affrays with white men; increased facilities for the display of their own ferocity towards each other; even more than any of these-drunkenness; the reduction of the birthrate, consequent on the immorality of the women; and lastly, the increased practice of infanticide, the women, through some superstition, destroying almost all the half-caste infants who now made a large proportion of their offspring ... The race, therefore, was doomed to destruction ... its decline was now mournfully rapid ... (by 1846) the remnant that was left was of no material consequence in the community. Many of the settlers in those days dreamt of the possibility of training them to be useful servants. Sometimes they were very successful, and the natives showed themselves useful in many ways; not that they were willing to do hard bodily labour, but in herding sheep, and riding messages, in driving wagons, they were often quite as valuable as the average European ... in 1846, when there was a great dearth of labour, and when the protectorate system had proved a failure, Gipps thought of trying some theme of converting the natives into shepherds. He accordingly sent a circular to all squatters asking their opinion. He received the stories of their various experiences in large numbers. (Proceedings of the Legislative Council of NSW, 1846) ... Gipps was very much enamoured of his scheme, but the balance of evidence was decidedly against it ... In short, there was no niche in the social fabric of the white man that the native was capable of permanently occupying." 

[Source: Whitworth. Mr R.P.; The Treatment of the Aboriginals-1838 to 1847 in Victoria and Its Metropolis (Melbourne, 1888) Page 250]

1847

"Sheer brutality and treacherous murder"

"The worst feature of the fading out of the native race arose from the sheer brutality and treacherous murder by white settlers and their convict servants. Governor Brisbane allowed the shooting of aboriginals in batches. It was said that they committed outrages; but barbarities perpetuated on them provoked them to revenge. The lowest depths of mean homicide was reached by some settlers who systematically gave natives arsenic in wheaten cakes, porridge, or other food. They murdered under the guise of kindness. The Rev. Dr. Lang, writing in 1847, stated of his own knowledge and that of other independent witnesses that this had been done, and GA Robinson, who became the chief protector of Aboriginals in Port Phillip after his Van Diemen's Land experience, alleged that poisoning was undoubtedly one cause in the decrease of the aboriginals. It was perhaps inevitable that the native race should fade away in the parts of the country where the white population became thick. They were not a people who could be absorbed or adapted to civilised life. But the tragedy of the process was very grim and hateful."

[Source: Scott, Ernest; A Short History of Australia (OUP 1916) (Page 187)]

 

The case of Bon Jon (1847)

"These two murderers and the murderer of Mr. Codd were the only three whom the white men hanged out of the thirty or forty arrested for murder during these early years, and it cannot be said that the law dealt harshly or with vindictiveness against them. We might perhaps have been better pleased if no such executions had taken place, but the settlers who saw their friends and servants murdered, yet did not dare to retaliate, were naturally indignant that the law dealt so leniently with those whom they regarded as treacherous murderers. It was a dilemma, and the authorities inclined on the side of mercy. ... But much greater was the dilemma when deciding what was to be done to the blacks for murders committed amongst themselves. Gipps had proclaimed them to be subjects of Her Majesty, and entitled to the protection of Her Majesty's laws. But it could scarcely be tolerated that Her Majesty's subjects should murder each other without hindrance. On the other hand, how were they to be prevented from doing so? And if captured, how could they be justly punished when they had only followed the laws and customs of their fathers? The authorities found it wisest to interfere in no way with the blacks who still roamed as of old. They continued to exterminate each other as before. But blacks who associated with the white man, who dwelt at their stations, who took service with the squatters for a time, and then as before murdered the other friendly blacks in the neighbourhood, of necessity attracted to themselves the notice of the law. It was every hard matter to decide what was to be done with them when they appeared in the dock charged with having broken the British law while following their own. The case that formed a test was that of Bon Jon, over which a vast deal of legal discussion took place; it was of value, however, as a precedent ... the matter was most earnestly thrashed out, the decision eventually being that the court had no jurisdiction in such cases. Bon Jon, however, was handed over to Protector Robinson to be educated and improved. He was killed not long after at a corroboree ... The case decided the point that the blacks were at liberty to follow their own custom among themselves as to murders and retaliation, and their ferocity, reinforced by the possession of firearms, and afforded an ampler scope by the mixing up of tribes that had taken place with the advent of the white man, was a main cause of the decay of the race." 

[Source: Whitworth. Mr R.P.; The Treatment of the Aboriginals-1838 to 1847in Victoria and Its Metropolis (Melbourne, 1888) Page 249]

 

"Special missionary exertions"

" .... the black population is fading out of existence very rapidly, and within the present generation will probably cease to exist. Elsewhere, though the decline may be less rapid, it is only where aboriginals are preserved by special missionary exertions that their numbers are maintained." 

[Source: Scott, Ernest; A Short History of Australia (OUP 1916) page ???? ]

 

  Grazing tenures  

“... on the grazing tenures – Earl Grey and the Colonial Office surrendered to the squatters. By the notorious Orders-In-Council of 1847, the license holders obtained the coveted right to leases for fourteen years of all runs in outlying districts ... during the currency of the leases only the lessees themselves could buy land on the runs; they could buy blocks of not less than a quarter of a square mile each.”

[Source: Reeves Pember W: The Land Question, in State Experiments in Australia & New Zealand Vol !, Macmillan of Australia, 1969, (first published 1902), Page 226 onwards]

 

"This reduction in the (surveying) department left it quite inadequate to undertake the survey of leases under the 1847 Order-in-Council and to meet the demand for land in the 1850s after the discovery of gold ..." (unknown)

 

1848 

"Our policy towards this helpless portion of our fellow-subjects"

"Earl Grey to Sir Charles Fitz Roy.

(Despatch No. 24, per ship Emperor of China; acknowledged by Sir Charles Fitz Roy, 11th October, 1848, and 12th November. 1849)

Sir,         Downing Street, 11th February, 1848.

I have received your Despatch No. 107 of the 1st March, 1847, enclosing the Reports of the Commissioners of Crown Lands in N. S. Wales and of the Protector of Aborigines in the Port Phillip District for the year 1846, on the condition of the Aborigines.

I see with much regret, but without any wish to accuse of remissness or want of forethought, those to whom the management of this difficult branch of our Public Service has been entrusted, that but little progress appears to have been made towards any effectual improvement in the condition of the natives in your Colony. It is of the highest importance that we should not suffer ourselves to be discouraged by the failure of experiments hitherto tried, but should pursue with unabated zeal the execution of those measures which appear to promise the best, and seek watchfully for any opportunity which may present itself of rectifying errors and devising improvements in our policy towards this helpless portion of our fellow-subjects.

I perceive from this Despatch and its enclosures that both -Mr. Latrobe and Captn. Lonsdale appear to entertain strong , doubts as to the utility of the Office of Chief Protector. I collect from the Papers Before me that this opinion is partly grounded on some want of zeal and efficiency exhibited by Mr. Robinson. And I understand you to express your concurrence in their views. Should this, indeed, have been your only reason, T should be unwilling to direct the abolition of an Office which, in more efficient hands, might prove, as it was originally intended, a valuable safeguard to the Natives. But you appear to leave it open for consideration, whether the Office is itself of sufficient utility to warrant its maintenance ..."

[Source: HRA p223]

Native Police

It is important to note that the official reason that the Native Police was initially established on the MacIntyre River was the killing of Aborigines by whites. On the 8th June 1848 Governor Fitzroy set aside 1000 pounds to be used for the establishment of a small Corps of Native Police. The reason stated in the Legislative Council was, “Circumstances having recently been brought under the Governor’s notice, in respect to certain collisions which have taken place, in parts beyond the Settled Districts, between the white inhabitants and the Aborigines, which appear to him to require that immediate steps should be taken for their repression…”

N.S.W. Legislative Council, Votes and Proceedings, 8 June 1848, p.31

More telling is the correspondence between the Colonial Secretary and Frederick Walker. In October of 1848 (prior to the force being deployed on the MacIntyre) E. Deas Thomson advised Walker of certain murders having been recently perpetrated by the whites on the Aborigines at the MacIntyre River.”16 

16 Colonial Secretary to Commandant of Native Police 4 October 1848 (NSW State Archives, 4/3860: Reel 2818)

1849

Evidence and Aborigines

".. another attempt was made to introduce a Bill 'almost in the very words' of the 1844 Bill. Again it was defeated." 

Woolmington, Jean, op cit, (Page 144)

 

The protectorate

"The protectorate was the most ambitious and comprehensive effort ever made in Eastern Australia to civilize, Christianize and protect the Aboriginals. It lasted from 1834 to 1849 ... Beside inadequate financial support, its officers were untrained and even the experienced Robinson was distrusted by Gipps. The final causes of failure, however, were that atrocities continued unabated and that newspapers in Melbourne and Sydney were unrelenting in their criticism. The policy of Whitehall was too idealistic: the heart of the matter ... was 'the hatred with which the white man regards the black' (James Stephen, Permanent Under-Secretary)." 

[Source: Shaw AGL and Clark CMH, Australian Dictionary of Biography 1788-1850 MUP 1967)

Page 452]  

 

Parliamentary Votes and proceedings; Mr Foster objects to the giving of evidence by Aborigines

29 June 1849 

Report of Legislative Council proceedings, in the Sydney Morning Herald (page ref if possible) "Mr Foster rose to object to the Bill and he did so because he thought it would be impossible to place any safeguard on the evidence of the blacks. They were so utterly debased a race, that they had no knowledge of truth or falsehood. The vices of our race were to them virtues, and our virtues vices. If a black took the life of one of a hostile tribe, he considered it a virtuous action, and they looked on the whites as a hostile tribe. But if even the whites took the lives of blacks of one tribe, those of another hostile to the slain applauded the whites for it ... it was admitted by all that the minds of this race were incapable of entertaining one scintilla of anything like religion, and how it was possible they should be restrained from giving false testimony." [13]  

 

Parliamentary Votes and Proceedings; "no point in impeding the march of civilisation"

 

In Parliament, Nichols (Nichols, George Robert) "saw no point in impeding the march of civilisation. (He said that) there was no doubt that the blacks had been very much neglected and ill-treated by the Government of this country: but they were the most debased and degraded race, and their desires extended only for trifling matters ... there was no doubt that such a race as this must give way before the march of civilization; they could not be instructed, and must eventually perish from the earth, as white men approached to occupy it..." [15]  

 

"The civilized people had come in and the savage must go back"

 

In Legislative Proceedings, William Charles Wentworth "denied the policy of Government interference in this matter altogether. He could not see if the whites in this colony were to go out into the land and possess it, that the Government had much to do with them. No doubt there would be battles between the settlers and the border tribes; but they might be settled without the aid of the Government. The civilized people had come in and the savage must go back. .. They must go on progressing until their dominancy was established, and therefore he could think that no measure was wise and merciful to the blacks which clothed them with a degree of seeming protection, which their position would allow them to maintain ... It was not the policy of a wise Government to attempt the perpetuation of the aboriginal race of New South Wales by any protective means. They must give way before the arms, aye! even the diseases of civilized nations – they must give way before they attain the power of those nations." [19]  

 

Native Rights in South Australia (handwritten document)

 

Land Office

July 11th, 1849

Native Rights in South Australia

Gentlemen,

Having laid your Letter of the 9th instant before the Governor and resident Commissioner, I an desired by His Excellency to say, in reply, that it is to him a matter of deep surprise that persons of intelligence, like yourselves, who also as preliminary purchasers, are well acquainted with the history of the Establishment of the Colony, should consider any rights which any Europeans possess to the Lands of the Province as preliminary to those of the Aboriginal inhabitants.

 

The natural indefeasible rights which as His Excellency conceives, are vested in them as their birthright, have been confirmed to them by Royal Instructions to the Governors and by the Commissioner's Instructions to the Resident Commissioners ... (missing?) ... possessed well understood and defined proprietary rights over the whole of the available lands in the provinces.  

 

In the degree of knowledge to which they have attained, it would however have been to their great disadvantage to have entered into any treaties with them for the cession of their lands inasmuch as as such lands would certainly have been obtained for the most part for the most insignificant illdefined and insignificant returns. 

 

The course which the Governor and Resident Commissioner has preferred to take is that of directing the Protectors of Aborigines to select such land as he may deem necessary for their future use, support and advancement in civilization such land being afterwards secured in the Governor in Council and Protector of the Aborigines.

 

This measure has been immediately brought about by direct application on the part of some of the Natives belonging to the Districts to which 

 

 

1850

The Australian Colonies Government Act.

"In 1850, the British Parliament passed the Australian Colonies Government Act. Under this Act, Victoria was formally separated from NSW in 1851. It also allowed the colonies to prepare constitutions for approval by the British Parliament. William Charles Wentworth ... chaired two Select Committees which prepared the NSW Constitution Bill which passed through the British Parliament in 1855."[History of NSW Government (Article reproduced from New South Wales Year Book, 1998 ABS Cat No. 1301.1)]  

 

1851

Government political allegiance, dates of administration

 

Non Aboriginal people wandering with Aborigines to be gaoled with hard labour

Vagrancy Act 1851 An Act for the more effectual prevention of Vagrancy and for the punishment of idle and disorderly Persons Rogues and vagabonds and incorrigible Rogues in the Colony of NSW [1st December, 1851] ".. and every person not being an aboriginal native or the child of any  aboriginal native who being found lodging or wandering in company with any of the Aboriginal natives of this Colony .." The Public General Statutes of New South Wales from 11 Victoriae to 15 Victoriae, inclusive (1847-1851.) 1861. No. IV. New South Wales; The Statute Index Sydney (1874), Alphabetical Index to the Subjects of the Public General Acts of the Legislatures of New South Wales, from Geo. IV to  Vic. inclusive. Aboriginals Competent Witnesses (Disallowed) 3 Vic. No. 16 (979) Aboriginals Firearms – Prohibited to (Disallowed) 4 Vic. No. 8 (1047) Aboriginals Wandering in company with, 15 Vic. No. 4 (2427), Aborigines Supply of liquor to prevention 31 Vic. No. 16 (3921) Abusive Language – (See "Vagrancy")

 

 

1851 – Imperial Act; preparation of a Constitution in NSW

1852

Government political allegiance, dates of administration

 

Act 7: Aborigines and evidence

An Act to Amend the Law of Evidence (16 Vic. No. 14) 19 August 1852: parties compellable witnesses unless self-incriminatory.

 

“Land revenue”

“... the land revenue, which had an Imperial aspect, was a point of contention even when self-government was conceded in 1852.” [21]

 

 

1853

The qualifications for the franchise

" ... a Committee of the Legislative Council was appointed to draft the new Constitution. It consisted of the following gentlemen:- Messrs. Wentworth, Deas-Thomson, James Macarthur, Cowper, Martin, Macleay, Thurlow, Murray and Dr. Douglas ... the "Constitution Act", the basis of the rights we now enjoy, was finally passed on the 21st December, 1853. This Act established two Legislative Chambers ... the qualification for the franchise being ...As the owner of a freehold estate of 100 pounds; as householders, lodging occupiers or leaseholders for three years at 10 pounds per annum, persons receiving 100 pounds a year salary, and pasture-license holders for one year .

Coghlan, T.A., A.M., Inst. C.E., Government Statistician; The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales 1887-88 (Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer, Phillip-Street. George Robinson and Co., 361 George-Street. 1888) Page 30  

 

"In the Legislative Council Cowper established himself as a most active man of business"

Charles (later Sir Charles) COWPER, Premier, 07.09.57 - 26.10.59

"Cowper, Sir Charles (1807-1875) , ... politician, ... As an official he was granted 1280 acres in the County of Argyle in 1827 and a further 1280 acres in 1830. By 1852 he had acquired by grant or purchase large estates ... as a tenant of the Crown he held nearly 20,000 acres in Argyle and 47,000 in the Lachlan pastoral district. In addition he owned Wivenhoe, 900 acres at Camden Park and had interests in Sydney real estate ... In 1843 at the first elections under the new Constitution Cowper stood for the County of Camden .. in the Legislative Council Cowper established himself as a most active man of business ... he resigned in 1850 ... In 1853 he was elected to the select committee which ... drew up the colony's new constitution ..." [23]

 

The New Constitution,  No. 17 VIC. No. 41 1853.

1853 -

 

 

The New Constitution Act, 1853 establishes the profitable ownership by the Queen of all the Crown lands in the colony, extinguishes Aboriginal title while affirming squatters' title; establishes 2 Chambers, the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly, (dominated by squatters and land profiteers). (S.1) excludes Aborigines from franchise by property, rental or lease qualification,  (S.13) describes the Electoral Districts which are actually the Tribal territories of still living Tribes, (S.15) refers to "Christian" names and the published Electoral Rolls, (S. 16) makes it legal for the Legislature to regulate the buying and selling of land, referred to as "Waste" lands (S.50) &c.

 

Wentworth, in Parliament, denies the policy of Government interference in violence towards the aborigines by settlers.

 

 

"on behalf of Her Majesty with respect to any lands situate within the said Colony in cases where such contracts promises or engagements shall have been lawfully made before the time at which this Act shall take effect within this Colony nor to disturb or in any way interfere with or prejudice any vested or other rights which have accrued or belong to the licensed occupants or lessees of any Crown Lands within or without the Settled Districts"

 

"The qualifications for Electors of the Legislative Assembly shall be as follows—Every man of the age of twenty-one years being a natural born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty or legally made a denizen of New South Wales and having a freehold estate in possession situate within the district for which his vote is to be given of the clear value of one hundred pounds sterling money ..."

 

"An Act to confer a Constitution on New South Wales and to grant a Civil List to Her Majesty. [Reserved22nd December, 1853.]

WHEREAS by the thirty-second clause of the Imperial Act passed b in the Session holden in the thirteenth and fourteenth years of the reign of Her present Majesty intituled "An Act for the better Government of Her Majesty's Australian Colonies" it was among other things enacted that notwithstanding anything therein before contained it should be lawful for the Governor and Legislative Council of this Colony from time to time by any Act or Acts to alter the provisions or laws for the time being in force under the said Imperial Act or otherwise concerning the Election of the Elective Members of such Legislative Council and the qualification of Electors and Elective Members or to establish in the said Colony instead of the Legislative Council a Council and a House of Representatives or other separate Legislative Houses to consist of such Members to be appointed or elected by such persons and in such manner as by such Act or Acts should be determined and to vest in such Council and House of Representatives or other separate Legislative Houses the powers and functions of the Legislative Council for which the same may be substituted And whereas it is expedient that the powers vested by the said Act in the said Governor and Legislative Council should be exercised and that a Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly as constituted by this Act should be substituted for the present Legislative Council with the increased powers and functions hereinafter contained Be it therefore enacted by His Excellency the Governor of New South Wales with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof as follows:—"

Link to the full text of New South Wales Constitution (1853) 

1854

Act 8: Amending the law on Aborigines and evidence

An Act further to amend the Law of Evidence (18 Vic No. 13) 22 August  year xxx

 

1855

 

Elective Parliament

Inauguration of new Constitution; first elective Parliament and responsible Ministry led by STUART ALEXANDER DONALDSON CHECK DATES

 

 

1856

 

First Parliament, Index to Parliamentary Debate (Sydney Morning Herald) 22/5/56 to 26/11/56

 

Aborigines

Legislative Assembly

Native Police; m. 20/8/56; q. 5/11/56; sel. com. 8/11/56; m. 26/11/56

Parliamentary Paper; Moreton Bay separation; 30/10/56

 

Legislative Council

Residents of Maranoa request protection from Aboriginals, petition 30/10/56

 

[7, 18 Feb, 20 June,

 

1856 – Civil recognition of births, death and marriages for non-Aboriginals

 

Legislative Assembly Votes and Proceedings; The Native Police

August 19th 1856

“THE NATIVE POLICE

Mr. BUCKLEY moved ‘That all correspondence from the Inspector-General of Police, Sydney, to the Commandant of Native Police in the Northern Districts, also all correspondence from Commandant of the Native Police to the said Inspector-General for the last two years, respecting the management of the Native Police, be laid upon the table of this House.’

Mr. DONALDSON, on behalf of the Government, said he had no objection whatsoever to produce the whole of the correspondence called for, but he would take the opportunity of reminding the House that the number of returns called for since the commencement of the session was so enormous that their production would seriously burden the records of the House, whilst their preparation and printing involved a correspondingly large amount of expenditure ...

Mr.FORSTER was of the opinion that the present case was one in  which the production of the papers was especially called for.

The motion was put and passed.” [24]

 

Legislative Assembly Proceedings, depredations of the aborigines

October 29th 1856

“Mr. SANDEMAN presented a petition from certain residents in the district of Maranoa, praying that provision be made for protecting the district from the depredations of the aborigines.

Petition received.” [25]

 

Parliamentary Paper; Moreton Bay separation

October 30th 1856

“Downing-street, 21st July, 1856

Sir-With reference to correspondence ... respecting the projected separation of the Northern districts of the Colony of New South Wales and their erection into a distinct colony, I have now to inform you that the time has arrived when this separation would be desirable ... they have been urged by the strong and repeated representations of parties possessing the confidence of the inhabitants of the Northern Districts, and also by statements proceeding from what they believe to be the majority of the inhabitants of the Northern districts ... the Legislative Council of New South Wales, by virtue of the proviso contained in the 46th section of the New South Wales Government Act, have given their sanctions to the principle, that the period at which the separation is to take place is to be left to a decision of the

Crown ... Her Majesty’s Government will have no great difficulty in fixing a line which will not far to the South of 30 S. latitude, but will be accommodated to suit the natural features of the country ... The future Government of the separated portion: the necessary powers for this purpose have been conferred on Her Majesty by the Act of Parliament enabling her to confirm the New South Wales Bill ... ” [26]

 

20 Aug, 1856

Legislative Assembly Proceedings; Woodlark Island massacres

November 5th 1856

WOODLARK ISLAND

Mr. GARLAND asked the Colonial Secretary if any or what steps had ben taken by the Government to ascertain the truth of the reported massacre of the crew of the Roman Catholic Mission brig Gazelle at Woodlark Island, about September, 1855.

Mr. PARKER replied that instructions had bee given to the Captain of the Juno to make every enquiry relative to the matter, and until that vessel had arrived the Government would not probably be in a position to afford any information on the subject.” [27]

 

Legislative Assembly Proceedings; The Native Police under the supervision of Mr. Frederick Walker

November 5th 1856

“ .. in reply to a question from Mr. FORSTER, the COLONIAL SECRETARY said that claims had been made against the Government in respect to the provision for the Native Police while under the supervision of Mr. Frederick Walker; but they were pending the investigation of the Government.” [28]

 

Legislative Assembly Proceedings; Native Police

November 8th 1856

NATIVE POLICE

Mr. SANDEMAN moved the following (amended) resolution. That a select committee be appointed to inquire into the present state of the Native Police in the colony, with a view to its organisation ... Mr. PARKER said there would be no objection on the part of the Government.

The motion was then put and passed” [29]

 

Legislative Assembly Proceedings; Native Police

November 26th 1856

“NATIVE POLICE

Mr. SANDEMAN moved: That the papers relating to the Management of the Native Police in the Northern Districts, which were laid upon the table of this House  on the 28th of October last, be referred to the select committee appointed to inquire into the Native Police Force.

Mr. FLOOD seconded the motion.

Carried.” [30]

Select Committee on the Native Police 

5 Dec 1856

8 Dec 1st Parliament: Estimates, Native Police Protection from Aborigines

30 Oct 1856 Blankets and Iron Tomahawks for Aborigines

[11 Dec 1856]

 

White women and the vote

"From 1856, under the NSW Constitutional Statute, NSW gained a fully responsible system of government. The Legislative Assembly was made up of 54 elected members and the Legislative Council of no fewer than 21 members nominated by the Governor... The Legislative Assembly was not fully representative because there were still property qualifications for voters. However, in 1858, the Electoral Reform Act gave NSW virtual manhood suffrage and secret ballot. This placed NSW among the world leaders in the introduction of parliamentary democracy. There were still two significant groups in the community who could not vote --- women and Aborigines. Women were granted the right to vote in NSW in 1902, but Aboriginal people had to wait for formal recognition until 1962." [31]

[31] Special Article – The History of Government in New South Wales; New South Wales Year Book, 1998? page ?

 




 

 

 

 

 

 

[13] SMH date

 

 

 

[16] wentworth, Proceedings

 

[17] Reeves Pember W: The Land Question in State Experiments in Australia & New Zealand Vol !, Macmillan of Australia, 1969, (first published 1902), Note, Page 226

 

[19] Proceedings, SMH, date

 

 

 

[21] Roberts, Sir Stephen: The Transition, in History of Australian Land Settlement 1788-1920 Macmillan o Australia, 1969, Page 227 onwards

[

 

[23]: Nairn NB (et al, Eds), Australian Dictionary of Biography 1851-1890 (Vol 3 MUP 1969) Page 476

 

 

[24] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Paper, 19/8/1856

 

[25] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 29/10/1856

[26] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 30/10/1856; (also see Map of the territory of the Bundjalung Nation, through and across which the new boundary was surveyed.)xxxxxxxx New Suth Wales Act 1856)

 

[27] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 5/11/1856

 

[28] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 7/11/1856

 

[29] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 8/11/1856

 

[30] Sydney Morning Herald Report, Parliament of New South Wales Legislative Assembly Proceedings, 26/11/1856